3D shape of Zippo lighters registrable when a lighter lid open, but unregistrable when closed

In an appeal to the refusal decision against trademark application no. 2014-8964 for a three dimensional shape of box-type lighter in connection with lighters of class 34 filed by ZIPPO Manufacturing Company (US), the Appeal Board of Japan Patent Office (JPO), after stating the application impermissibly contains two 3D marks, namely Shape A with a lighter lid closed and Shape B with a lighter lid open, ruled as follows.

Shape A
Shape A can be easily perceived as a shape of box-type lighter with the lid closed in connection with the goods in dispute. Besides, as a matter of fact, similar lighters are commercially produced and distributed in general. If so, relevant traders and consumers at the sight of Shape A  are likely to conceive the shape as a mere indication of the lighter.  Thus, Shape A is objectionable based on Article 3(1)(iii) of the Trademark Law since the shape solely consists of a shape commonly used on lighters.

Even if Shape A corresponds to the 3D shape of “ZIPPO Brushed Chrome 200” substantially produced and promoted by applicant, it is questioned whether Shape A serves to function as a source indicator since presumably traders and consumers distinguish applicant’s lighters by the “ZIPPO” letter marked at the bottom of the lighter where the lid remains closed. Accordingly, Shape A is unregistrable based on Article 3(2) as well.

Shape B
Three dimensional shapes cited for refusal during initial examination are all related to box-type lighters with a lid closed. As long as there shows no reference to lighters with a lid open in the refusal decision, it should be construed that the initial examination just questioned Shape A, not B.

Since applicant amended to delete Shape A from the application, the initial decision lacks legal ground to refusal the applied mark of Shape B based on Article 3(1)(iii) accordingly.

As a conclusion, the Board admits to register the applied 3D mark consisting of Shape B in connection with lighters.
[Appeal case no. 2016-2368]


It is worthy to note that in an attempt to register 3D shape of goods, a hidden shape is considered an independent mark from the shape perceivable from appearance of the goods.
Besides, the JPO allowed to delete one of 3D marks depicted in the application document without detrimental effect to the applicant despite that the Trademark Law prohibits amendment of mark amounting to change its gist.

MASAKI MIKAMI, Attorney at IP Law – Founder of MARKS IP LAW FIRM