In Japan, the trademark law allows for registration of defensive marks under Article 64. The proprietor of a well-known registered trademark (original registration) which has been applied for in respect of certain goods/services can obtain defensive registration for the identical mark on goods/services unrelated to those designated under the original registration if he feels that there causes a likelihood of confusion when unauthorized entity uses the identical mark in respect of those goods/services.
Trademarks in Japan are declared well-known via judicial or administrative processes. Under the judicial process, the appeal/trial board or courts recognize trademarks as well-known in their decisions. Under the administrative process, the Japan Patent Office (JPO) recognizes a mark as well-known when the proprietor registers a mark as a defensive mark or proves substantial good will bestowed on the mark through cancellation, opposition, and invalidation procedures.
Further, JPO maintains a database of well-known trademarks, recognized either through judicial process or administrative process, which is accessible to the public at large.
If you are in need to search Japanese well-known trademarks, please access the following URL.
MASAKI MIKAMI, Attorney at IP Law
Founder of MARKS IP LAW FIRM
Article 64 of the Japanese Trademark Law stipulates definition and requirements for defensive mark registration.
“Where a registered trademark pertaining to goods is well known among consumers as that indicating the designated goods in connection with the business of a holder of trademark right, the holder of trademark right may, where the use by another person of the registered trademark in connection with goods other than the designated goods pertaining to the registered trademark or goods similar thereto or in connection with services other than those similar to the designated goods is likely to cause confusion between the said other person’s goods or services and the designated goods pertaining to his/her own business, obtain a defensive mark registration for the mark identical with the registered trademark in connection with the goods or services for which the likelihood of confusion exists.”
A trademark may be registered as a defensive mark with respect to dissimilar goods/services that are not covered by the primary registration, where the owner of the trademark can demonstrate that the mark has acquired remarkable prestige in relation to the goods/services on which the mark has been substantially used, and thus there is a likelihood of confusion that consumers would conceive a connection between those dissimilar goods/services and the registered owner.
Obtaining a defensive mark registration is seemingly a desirable way to protect a well-known, registered mark from infringement. At the outset, the owner can prevent the registration from challenging a non-use cancellation. Besides, there are provisions in the Japanese Trademark Law that allow the owner of a defensive mark to take action against a third-party for infringement of the mark by its use on dissimilar goods/services that are covered by the defensive mark registration. In the meantime, the provision does not specify that owner may take action against a non-identical or deceptively similar mark by a third-party. In this respect, many of famous-mark owners hesitate to apply for a defensive mark registration. Since standard trademark registration provides a broader protection to compel third-party to cease an unauthorized use of similar mark as well, they feel less incentive to register a defensive mark in light of costly proceeding and a large volume of evidence. It is true that the owner has registered the mark as standard trademark by designating goods/services unrelated to their ordinary business.
Nevertheless, a defensive mark remains effective for famous-mark owners. It is largely because defensive mark registration signifies the mark to be certified well-known by the Japan Patent Office (JPO). Japanese well-known trademarks are posted for public review on the JPO website.
A defensive mark also serves to act as a blocking mechanism against junior applications that seek to take advantage of the reputation associated with the well-known mark.